For a number of weeks now, I have been on this quest to be able to identify pine trees as the history of our forests are connected to the our St Luice River. To get me started, my mother, historian Sandra Henderson Thurlow, lent me a number of books, historic photographs, and great old newspaper articles. What I thought would be easy has ended up being hard.
Today, I am going to begin my pine tree series, asking for your help, starting with the example of the post card above. This ca. pre 1900 post card shows something we do know: Stuart, Martin County was once covered in pine forests, mostly sand pines or slash pines, but throughout varied texts that are references to other types of pines too.
According to column entitled “Memories of Early Forests In This Area” written on January 24th, 1974 by Stuart News editor, Ernie Lyons “most of the virgin longleaf yellow pines…were logged off from 1918-1928.” It has been confusing to me that Mr Lyons an avid naturalist, mentions longleaf yellow pines, rather than slash pines, but as all the trees were cut, I doubt I will ever know for sure the answer to this question: “Were there any longleaf pines in the lands that became Martin County?
Mr Lyons also notes: “They were magnificent trees, some towering to 60 feet. Where the big pines prevailed there was almost no undergrowth , just a forest floor carpeted with pine needles and giant cones.“
Pine identification is hairsplitting but it is easy to see that the longleaf pine has the giant pine cones, not the two varieties of slash pine, nor a sand pine. This leaves one wondering, could Ernie Lyons possibly be talking about longleaf pine? https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/FR/FR00300.pdf
Below is Ernie Lyons’ column. What pine or pines do you think he is taking about? 🙂
Memories of Early Forests in This Area
by Ernie Lyons, 1-24-74 https://flpress.com/hall_of_fame/ernest-lyons/
Most of the virgin longleaf yellow pines in this part of Florida were logged off form 1918 to 1928. They were magnificent trees, some towering to 60 feet. Where the big pines prevailed there was almost no undergrowth, just a forest floor carpeted with pine needles and giant cones.
The big stands were practically immune to the ravages of fire. There simply wasn’t enough undergrowth to send the flames high enough to reach viable limbs and branches. But the lumberman’s crosscut saw was a different matter.
This not to say that all of Martin and St Lucie counties was tall yellow pine country. The big pines did not favor high water tables. The were most avoidant on the high ground along the North and South Forks of the St Luice. There were scattered strands on high ridges in western Martin County and dense forests between Indiantown and Okeechobee.
Three big mills operated in the area at that time. One of the largest was at Rio, with a logging railroad which ran from there across the North Fork at about the site of the present Port St. Lucie bridge over the river. Another mill, which left a giant pile of sawdust was located on the upper North Fork about half a mile west of the present mouth of C-24, then called Cane Slough Creek. There was a giant lumber and turpentine operation at Sherman west of Indiantown.
By the time the Florida Boom collapsed in 1928, there were not enough big trees left to make it worthwhile to operate large mills and the bottom had fallen out of lumber prices.
Then began the era of the small “hit and run” portable saw mills. These gathered in the few big trees overlooked becasue they were in dense hammocks and so hard to get out that the effort had not been worth the trouble.
The small operators cut anything big enough to saw a two-by-four from. Timber leasing was often overlooked entirely. If leasing was observed, the usual practice was to lease a quarter section and then timber the sections around it on all sides.
By the early 1940s, the county was practically denuded of pines bigger than three or four inches in diameter. It was a scraggly, ugly county, its natural beauty demolished shamefully. There has been a remarkable recovery in the past 34 years, but the pines of any size that you see now are mostly second growth and will never equal the old virgin forests.
The only evidence of the the former forests in most of the county is pitch pine stumps, and in recent years most of these have been removed and shipped off to make resin, turpentine, and dynamite.
I saw the virgin yellow pine forests up the North Fork and they are a marvelous sight to remember. They were the haunt of the huge Florida fox squirrels, big as cats- black, black and white, grey and reddish. When the big pines went, fox squirrels became scarce.
Some of he tallest pines, especially near lakes and along the river, had stick nests of bald eagles in their crowns. One over near the south end of Mile Lake, had a pair of the most aggressive eagles I ever saw, especially when there were newly hatched eagles up above. I discovered it was not safe to come within a few hundred feet of that tree without being dive -bombed in turn by Ma and Pa.
Wild turkeys used to stroll singe file through the tall pine forests as also did sandhill cranes.
Ernest Lyons: Memories of Early Forests 1947 2019_11_16_09_27_22Identifying Virgin Pine Forests, Not as Easy as You’d Think!
Common Pines of Florida, IFAS:https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/FR/FR00300.pdf
Slash Pine – Pinus Elliottii, U.S. Forest Service 1954, variation elliiotti vs densa https://www.srs.fs.usda.gov/pubs/rp/osp_se036.pdf
The term “yellow pine” refers to many pines:”https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yellow_pine_(disambiguation)
9 thoughts on “Identifying Our Virgin Pine Forests, Not as Easy as You’d Think!”
cool, one of many things we do not know we are losing or lost .
On Mon, Dec 2, 2019 at 11:44 AM Jacqui Thurlow-Lippisch wrote:
> Jacqui Thurlow-Lippisch posted: ” For a number of weeks now, I have been > on this quest to be able to identify pine trees as the history of our > forests are connected to the our St Luice River. To get me started, my > mother, historian Sandra Henderson Thurlow, lent me a number of books, ” >
I hate to think that my grandfather had something to do with this. He came to Florida from Mullins South Carolina and ran a turpentining operation in Central Florida.
I LOVE pine trees and it breaks my heart that these magnificent ones were cut in these early days. I really enjoyed this post.
Hope you guys have a wonderful holiday!
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Janet we all connected one way or another. My grandfather always talked about PROGRESS which meant…I so much like it when you write. Interesting to learn about your grandfather in the turpentine industry!
Longleaf Pines (Pinus palustris) are identified by their candles and foliage. I see mostly Slash around here. They will grow here.
Thank you Shrub Queen!!!
I see them rarely – if I spot one I will let you know.
In nature panthers would kill off the feeble and weak. After seeing the giant deer I now think hunters may have killed the strongest and biggest deer for so long that Florida’s deer average out to be the smallest in the country. Maby they should inport some of Georga’s giant deer from the Piedmont Wildlife refuge and paint their antlers orange.
Yesterday I went to State rep Debbie Mayfields town hall meeting. I handed my —fixing the lagoon paper to her aid—the mayor of Melbourne—the vice mayor of Vero. Her aid gave me her card and said to call her. She did not call back. I would be more than happy to tell her what our state gov. and their special interest groups has done to the citizens of Florida is as bad as what Stalin did to Ukraine when he removed all the food. It did not kill 12 million people but the koas and stress it has caused can not be measured.
Your writings are always wonderful and informative. Thanks for sharing.