Tag Archives: Sand Pines

When East Ocean Blvd. was Just a “Rock Road”

Rock Road, Stuart, Martin County, FL ca. 1907. Courtesy archives Sandra Henderson Thurlow.

“This is thought to be our school house where the courthouse is today. So this would be today’s South East Ocean Boulevard. I would say the year is about 1907.” Mom

This quaint photograph is a far cry from what one sees toady. It was taken along the well traveled South East Ocean Boulvard near today’s Martin County Court House. The photo is believed to have been taken around 1907 and reveals that the area was a sand pine habitat with an understory of palmettos and other scrub like plants. These sandy soils are ancient sandbars. They remain today under inches of fill, floratam grass, and pavement.


They are interesting because we are traveling along them “all the time.”

According to the History of Martin County one of the reasons there were rumbling in our area, starting around 1915, -to brake away from Palm Beach County- was that there were no paved roads:

The book states on page 441: “There were no paved roads, for example, between Stuart and Indiantown, or between Jensen and Stuart, or from Palm City to Tequesta. The roads that had been built were narrow “shell” roads. ~By the middle 20s then citizens of this area were tired of getting stuck in the sand. They decided the only way they would get good roads was to break away and form their own county.”

Which they did in 1925. (https://jacquithurlowlippisch.com/tag/counties-florida/)

Personally, I would enjoy it  if we had left a few more “Rock Roads.” I find this photo above relaxing and absolutely beautiful! Rock over Pavement! 🙂


Google Earth map of 2019. SE Ocean can be seen just south of wide St Lucie River. There are maybe three sand pine trees left.


The Long Forgotten Wetlands of East Ocean Blvd. https://jacquithurlowlippisch.com/2017/05/19/the-long-forgotten-wetlands-of-east-ocean-boulevard-slrirl/

Lover’s Lane, Today’s US1:https://jacquithurlowlippisch.com/tag/todays-us1/

*Today this habitat is endangered as most all sand pine scrub types along Florida’s east coast have been developed. Certainly, prior to development, there were many scrub jays and gopher turtles that had lived and adapted to changes in this area for thousands of years

WWF Sand Pine Scrub: https://www.worldwildlife.org/ecoregions/na0513

Antique Stuart, Fl postcard ca. early 1900s, with native Sand Pines, courtesy Sandra Henderson Thurlow.
Photo of Downtown Stuart area. The house now is owned by the law offices of John Sherrard. This is 6th Street. Note sand pines and white sand. The building being constructed is today a yoga studio 2019. Photo courtesy of Sandra Henderson Thurlow.

Identifying Our Virgin Pine Forests, Not as Easy as You’d Think!

Deer Camp in Stuart, FL when pine forests were prevalent, historic postcard, date unknown, possibly pre-1900 as identified by Richard Roberts. Courtesy archives Sandra Henderson Thurlow.

For a number of weeks now, I have been on this quest to be able to identify pine trees as the history of our forests are connected to the our St Luice River. To get me started, my mother, historian Sandra Henderson Thurlow, lent me a number of books, historic photographs, and great old newspaper articles. What I thought would be easy has ended up being hard.

Today, I am going to begin my pine tree series, asking for your help, starting with the example of the post card above. This ca. pre 1900 post card shows something we do know: Stuart, Martin County was once covered in pine forests, mostly sand pines or slash pines,  but throughout varied texts that are references to other types of pines too.

According to column entitled “Memories of Early Forests In This Area” written on January 24th, 1974 by Stuart News editor, Ernie Lyons “most of the virgin longleaf yellow pines…were logged off from 1918-1928.” It has been confusing to me that Mr Lyons an avid naturalist, mentions longleaf yellow pines, rather than slash pines, but as all the trees were cut,  I doubt I will ever know for sure the answer to this question: “Were there any longleaf pines in the lands that became Martin County?

Mr Lyons also notes: “They were magnificent trees, some towering to 60 feet. Where the big pines prevailed there was almost no undergrowth , just a forest floor carpeted with pine needles and giant cones.

Pine identification is hairsplitting but it is easy to see that the longleaf pine has the giant pine cones, not the two varieties of slash pine, nor a sand pine. This leaves one wondering, could Ernie Lyons possibly be talking about longleaf pine? https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/FR/FR00300.pdf


Below is Ernie Lyons’ column. What pine or pines do you think he is taking about? 🙂


Memories of Early Forests in This Area
by Ernie Lyons, 1-24-74 https://flpress.com/hall_of_fame/ernest-lyons/

Most of the virgin longleaf yellow pines in this part of Florida were logged off form 1918 to 1928. They were magnificent trees, some towering to 60 feet. Where the big pines prevailed there was almost no undergrowth, just a forest floor carpeted with pine needles and giant cones.

The big stands were practically immune to the ravages of fire. There simply wasn’t enough undergrowth to send the flames high enough to reach viable limbs and branches. But the lumberman’s crosscut saw was a different matter.

This not to say that all of Martin and St Lucie counties was tall yellow pine country. The big pines did not favor high water tables. The were most avoidant on the high ground along the North and South Forks of the St Luice. There were scattered strands on high ridges in western Martin County and dense forests between Indiantown and Okeechobee.

Three big mills operated in the area at that time. One of the largest was at Rio, with a logging railroad which ran from there across the North Fork at about the site of the present Port St. Lucie bridge over the river. Another mill, which left a giant pile of sawdust was located on the upper North Fork about half a mile west of the present mouth of C-24, then called Cane Slough Creek. There was a giant lumber and turpentine operation at Sherman west of Indiantown.

By the time the Florida Boom collapsed in 1928, there were not enough big trees left to make it worthwhile to operate large mills and the bottom had fallen out of lumber prices.

Then began the era of the small “hit and run” portable saw mills. These gathered in the few big trees overlooked becasue they were in dense hammocks and so hard to get out that the effort had not been worth the trouble.

The small operators cut anything big enough to saw a two-by-four from. Timber leasing was often overlooked entirely. If leasing was observed, the usual practice was to lease a quarter section and then timber the sections around it on all sides.

By the early 1940s, the county was practically denuded of pines bigger than three or four inches in diameter. It was a scraggly, ugly county, its natural beauty demolished shamefully. There has been a remarkable recovery in the past 34 years, but the pines of any size that you see now are mostly second growth and will never equal the old virgin forests.

The only evidence of the the former forests in most of the county is pitch pine stumps, and in recent years most of these have been removed and shipped off to make resin, turpentine, and dynamite.

I saw the virgin yellow pine forests up the North Fork and they are a marvelous sight to remember. They were the haunt of the huge Florida fox squirrels, big as cats- black, black and white, grey and reddish. When the big pines went, fox squirrels became scarce.

Some of he tallest pines, especially near lakes and along the river, had stick nests of bald eagles in their crowns. One over near the south end of Mile Lake, had a pair of the most aggressive eagles I ever saw, especially when there were newly hatched eagles up above. I discovered it was not safe to come within a few hundred feet of that tree without being dive -bombed in turn by Ma and Pa.

Wild turkeys used to stroll singe file through the tall pine forests as also did sandhill cranes.

Ernest Lyons: Memories of Early Forests 1947 2019_11_16_09_27_22Identifying Virgin Pine Forests, Not as Easy as You’d Think!


Common Pines of Florida, IFAS:https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/FR/FR00300.pdf

Slash Pine – Pinus Elliottii, U.S. Forest Service 1954, variation elliiotti vs densa https://www.srs.fs.usda.gov/pubs/rp/osp_se036.pdf

The term “yellow pine” refers to many pines:”https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yellow_pine_(disambiguation)